Papilloma Virus

The papilloma virus


     HPV stands for Human Papilloma Virus.

     The papilloma virus is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. A very large proportion of the population is infected with the papilloma virus. Until now about 250 known types of papilloma virus but well known are about 80, and of these only 10-15 are involved in the pathology of cervical cancer.

     In the category of skin infections the HPV (human papilloma virus) enter: vulgar warts, warts planting, flat warts, anal and genital warts, papillomas and other lesions. Warts are epithelial cell proliferation as a result of their infection with the papilloma virus, and they are usually painless (the exception may be with the ones located at the plantar (on foot).

     The papilloma virus is a common virus (often seen) that causes abnormalities in cells or skin tumors. HPV can cause changes in the skin of the legs and arms, vocal cords, mouth and genital areas. At this time there are more than 60 types of papilloma viruses identified and each type infects a particular body part.

     The infection with the papilloma virus occurs through contact with surfaces or with people infected and it is located where the skin has (micro) injured areas (an absolutely intact skin prevents the infection with papilloma virus). The infections may frequently occur at people who go to swimming pools regularity (the infection is helped by maceration of the skin) or in some professions (ex butchers). In case of genital lesions presence (warts acuminate) patients should be further investigated to exclude other sexually transmitted diseases. These anal and genital warts in children should be carefully investigated to exclude sexual abuse.

     Since the infection with papilloma virus occurs until the clinical expression (until the appearance of lesions) may take between 2-9 months, during which the infected person has no clinical manifestations can even infect other people.

     Lesions caused by the papilloma virus can regress spontaneously during a variety of time or can grow (auto inoculate). Warts "mosaic" located on a large plantar surface are more resistant to treatment and may have a prolonged evolution. Also, a prolonged evolution can be seen in immune compromised individuals.


Complications:


  1. Pain (especially in the planar located warts)
  2. Malignant transformation - is demonstrated and experimental evidenced for only a few types of papilloma virus. Infection may occur in types: 16, 18, 31, 33-35, 39-40, 51-60 - are high risk types that these can cause cervical or penis carcinomas, 5 and 8 - are types of papilloma virus found in lesions of epidemic dysplasia verruciform (a genetic disorder in which there is a defect in cellular immunity), lesions can evolve under the influence of solar radiation in squamous cell carcinoma.


     The papilloma virus is important because it changes the tissues. Certain types of the papilloma virus can cause cancer of female genitalia. Diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent cancer due to changes.


Consequences of infestation and lack of treatment


     Cervical cancer

  • 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually worldwide
  • 240,000 women die of cervical cancer annually, 650 daily

     Vulvae cancer U.S. in 2005:

  • 3870 cases of vulvae cancer
  • 870 have died because of vulvae cancer

     Vagina cancer in the USA 2005

  • 2140 cases diagnosed
  • 810 women died due to cancer

     Other consequences of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV)

  • Cervical dysplasia
  • 10 million per year - high-grade cervical dysplasia
  • 30 million per year - low-grade cervical dysplasia
  • dysplasia vaginal / vulvar

     Human papilloma virus is the cause of 80% of cases of genital warts

  • 30 million new cases per year according to WHO (World Health Organization), 90% caused by HPV 6, 11